||Title: Vorlesungen über die Geschichte des jüdischen Staates gehalten an der Universität zu Berlin.
Lectures on the history of the Jewish state (up to 70 CE) held at the University of Berlin by Professor D. Heinrich Leo.
Heinrich Leo (17 March 1799 – 24 April 1878) was a Prussian historian born at Rudolstadt, his father being chaplain to the garrison there. His family, not of Italian origin as he himself was inclined to believe on the strength of family tradition, but established in Lower Saxony so early as the 10th century, was typical of the German upper middle classes, and this fact, together with the religious atmosphere in which he was brought up and his, early enthusiasm for nature, largely determined the his interests. The taste for historical study was, moreover, early instilled into him by the eminent philologist Karl Wilhelm Gottling (1793 - 1869), who in 1816 became a master at the Rudolstadt gymnasium. From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and Gottingen, devoting himself more especially to history, philology and theology. At this time the universities were still agitated by the Liberal and patriotic aspirations aroused by the War of Liberation; at Breslau Leo fell under the influence of Jahn, and joined the political gynmastic association (Turnvercin); at Jena he attached himself to the radical wing of the students association, the so-called Black Band, under the leadership of Karl Follen. The murder of Kotzebue by Karl Sand, however, shocked him out of his extreme revolutionary views, and from this time he tended, under the influence of the writings of Hamann and Herder, more and more in the direction of conservatism and romanticism, until at last, he ended, in a mood almost of pessimism, by attaching himself to the extreme right wing of the forces of reaction. So early as April 1819, at Gottingen, he had fallen under the influence of Karl Ludwig von Hallers Handbuch der aligemeinen Staatenkunde (1808), a text-book of the counter Revolution. On the 11th of May 1820 he took his doctors degree; in the same year he qualified as Privatdozenl at the University of Erlangem. For this latter purpose he had chosen as his thesis the constitution of the free Lombard Cities in the middle ages, the province in which he was destined to do most for the scientific study of history. His interest in it was greatly stimulated by a journey to Italy in 1823; In 1824 he returned to the subject, and, as the result, published in five volumes a history of the Italian states (1829-1832). Meanwhile he had been established (1822-1827) as Dozent in Berlin, where he came in contact with the leaders of German thought and was somewhat spoilt by the flattering attentions of the highest Prussian society. Here, too, it was that Hegls philosophy of history made a deep impression upon him. It was at Halle, however, where he remained for forty years, that he acquired his fame as an academical teacher.
In addition to his lecturing, Leo found time for much literary and political work. As a critic of independent Views he won the approval of Goethe; on the other hand, he fell into violent controversy with Ranke about questions connected with Italian history. Up to the revolutionary year 1830 his religious views had remained strongly tinged with rationalism, Hegel remaining his guide in religion as in practical politics and the treatment of history. It was not until 1838 that Leos polemical work Die Hegelingen proclaimed his breach with the radical developments of the philosophers later disciples; a breach which developed into opposition to the philosopher himself. Under the impression of the July revolution in Paris and of the orthodox and pietistic influences at Halle, Leos political convictions were henceforth dominated by reactionary principles. As a friend of the Prussian Camarilla and of King Frederick William IV he collaborated especially in the high conservative Politisches Wochenblatt, which first appeared in 1831, as well as in the Evangelisch Kirchenzeitung, the Kreuzzeitung and the Volksblatt fr Stadt und Land. In all this his critics scented an inclination towards Catholicism; and Leo did actually glorify the counter-Reformation, e.g. in his History of the Netherlands (2 vols. 1832-1835). His other historical works also, notably his Universal geschichte (6 vols., 1835-1844), display a very o1esided point of view. When, however, in connection with the quarrel about the archbishopric of Cologne (1837), political Catholicism raised its head menacingly, Leo turned against it with extreme violence in his open letter (1838) to Goerres, ith foremost champion. On the other hand, he took a lively part in the politico-religious controversies within the fold of Prussian Protestantism.
During the last year of his life his mind suffered rapid decay, of which signs had been apparent so early as 1868. He died at Halle on the 24th of April 1878. In addition to the works already mentioned, he left behind an account of his early life; Meine Jugendzeit.