||A history of Judaism in the Talmudic period by Dr. Konrad Martin, Bishop of Paderborn; b. 18 May, 1812, at Geismar, d. 16 July, 1879, at Mont St Guibert, Belgium. He studied theology and Oriental languages for two years at Munich under Döllinger and Allioli, then went to Halle where the famous Gesenius taught, and thence to Würzburg, where he received the degree of "Doctor Theologiæ". But before he could present the necessary Public Act, he was compelled to leave Würzburg, and undergo the same examination in Münster, Westphalia, because the Prussian ministry forbade studying at South German universities and did not recognize their degrees. In 1835 he obtained in Münster the degree of D.D. Feeling an inclination towards academic teaching, he entered the Archdiocese of Cologne, and as a student of the theological seminary was ordained priest in 1836. Immediately after this he was appointed rector of the "pro-gymnasium" at Wipperfürth, and published, in Mainz, 1839, under the pseudonym Dr. Fridericus Lange, a forceful pamphlet against Hermesianism. The pamphlet created a sensation everywhere and caused the coadjutor Geissel of Cologne to appoint the young teacher of religion at the Marzellengymnasium at Cologne in the year 1840.
In order to elevate the teaching of religion in the higher schools and to infuse into it a deeper significance, he wrote his famous text- book of the Catholic religion for high-schools (Mainz, 1843). Geissel made him extraordinary professor of theology at the University of Bonn, inspector of the local seminaries, and, with Dieringer, university preacher. In 1848 he became ordinary professor of moral theology and published, in 1850, the "Lehrbuch der katholischen Moral". Soon, however, he was compelled to give up his work at Bonn.
In 1856 he was elected Bishop of Paderborn. Filled with apostolic zeal he accepted the responsible office, and became one of the most illustrious bishops of Germany. He considered it his chief duty to protect the Faith against all attacks. In order to train effective priests, he combined his annual confirmation journeys with detailed investigations so as to become acquainted with his clergy and to instill everywhere a true ecclesiastical spirit. He founded, in 1857, at Heiligenstadt a second seminary for boys and introduced the general examination for priests. In connection with ideas he formed in 1860 during the provincial council at Cologne, he founded with his own money a theological school at Paderborn. He acquired especial merit through the establishment and enlargement of the Bonifatius-Verein, of which he was president from 1859 until 1875, and through the assistance of which he was able to found about fifty new missionary posts in neglected districts. He even planned to lead the Protestants of Germany back to the Catholic Church and addressed to them three friendly brochures entitled: "An episcopal message to the Protestants of Germany, especially to those of my own Diocese, regarding the points of controversy between us" (Paderborn, 1866); "Second Episcopal Message to the Protestants of Germany" (same year); and "Why is there still this gulf between the Churches? An open message to Germany's Catholics and Protestants" (1869). These writings did not have the success expected by him, but made him many enemies.
The Vatican Council gave him the opportunity to show his fidelity to the Holy See and to champion his faith. This fidelity to the Apostolic See which he showed openly at every opportunity despite all hostile criticisms; his restless activity for the spread of the Catholic faith; the establishment of missions in Northern Germany, and his open message to the Protestants of Germany, formed the opportunity for the most vituperious attacks against him in the daily press and, as soon as the necessary laws had been passed, an occasion to proceed against him by means of different oppressive measures and a chance to undermine his authority; but in vain, for as soon as the intentions of the Prussian government became clear to all, thousands of men from the whole diocese journeyed to the cathedral town to swear undying fidelity to their bishop and to the Catholic Church.
Finally, in 1874, because of his transgression of the May Laws, he was sentenced to imprisonment; relieved of his office, and incarcerated in the fortress of Wesel. A few months later, however, he succeeded in escaping to Holland, but was expelled on the demand of the Prussian government. He found a refuge with the Sisters of Christian Love, who had been banished from Paderborn and who had settled in Mont St. Guibert. From there, as a centre, he governed secretly his diocese, labored as pastor and teacher of religion, and wrote several works.