Ibn Saruq was born in Tortosa, Spain but moved at an early age to Cordova, where first Isaac, the father of Hisdai ibn Shaprut, and afterwards Hisdai were his patrons. Ibn Saruq was the author of Hisdai's famous letter to the king of the Khazars. R. Dunash b. Labrat (mid-10th century), linguist and Hebrew poet, was described by R. Moses ibn Ezra as a Baghdadi by origin and a man of Fez by education. R. Dunash studied with Saadiah Gaon in Baghdad, and was called by the honorific titles nasi and gevir, and served as a rabbi and dayyan. Dunash wrote a series of responsa against Menachem and presented them, with praise and thanks, to Hisdai.