||Liturgy for the Day of Atonement ascribed to the amora R. Yose ben Yose with the commentary of the renowned liturgical commentator, R. David ben Joseph Abudarham. There is an initial page listing the publications of the M’kize Nirdamin Society, which issued this work, then Hebrew and German title pages, and an introduction by L. Ph. Prins, and the text, which is piyyutim for Yom ha-Kippurim with the accompanying commentary.At the end of the volume are variant nusahot.
Yose ben Yose (fourth or fifth century C.E.?) is the earliest liturgical poet known by name. Rav Saadiah mentions him as foremost among the famous poets of antiquity (Arabic introduction to the Iggaron, and Hebrew translation, ed. A. Harkavy, in Zikkaron la-Rishonim ve-Gam la-Aharonim, 5 (1891), 50f.). Of the many theories about him, the only one that appears tenable is that his native country was Palestine, as it has been established beyond doubt that the oldest piyyut was developed in that country. Even in the early Middle Ages nothing was known of the period and the circumstances of his life. He is sometimes called ha-yatom ("the orphan") apparently because he bore the name of his father. Others called him "high priest" from which it would seem that he was believed to have lived in the times of the Temple while others identify him with the amora Yose b. Yose. He probably flourished as early as the fifth or even the fourth century. Since these dates cannot be definitely determined, it is not certain whether he is to be regarded as the originator of the artistic piyyut or as reliant upon older models no longer extant. Despite his dependence on the picturesque style of the Midrash and occasional neologisms, Yose's language is distinguished by its purity and its lofty poetic diction. He is the only non-Spaniard whose verses Ibn Janah quotes in his dictionary as ideal models (Sefer ha-Shorashim (Berlin, 1893), 305, 419).
R. David ben Joseph Abudarham, (14th century) was a liturgical commentator in Spain, author of Sefer Abudarham, written in 1340 in Seville. Abudarham came from a distinguished family, and apparently an earlier namesake was a communal leader in Toledo. Abudarham was moved to write his book, like Asher b. Saul of Lunel before him, because “the customs connected with prayer have become varied from one country to another, and most of the people do not understand the words of the prayers, nor do they know the correct ritual procedures and the reasons for them.” The book is based on the Talmud and the decisions of the geonim, and on the early and later commentators. It abounds in source material of Spanish, Provencal, French, and Ashkenazi origins, not all of which has otherwise survived. Abudarham made extensive use of the prayer book of Saadiah Gaon, and it seems he was the last to see and use an original of this book. He also utilized the Manhig of Abraham b. Nathan ha-Yarhi of Lunel and the Minhagot of Asher b. Saul, the legal dicta of Asher b. Jehiel and the Turim. Some scholars think he was a disciple of Jacob b. Asher, author of the Turim. Abudarham commented upon the prayers in great detail and traced the variations in custom in different countries. He included a commentary on the Passover Haggadah, rules of intercalation, the order of weekly pentateuchal readings and haftarot for the entire year, and calendrical and astronomical tables. Abudarham appended to his book rules governing benedictions, dividing them into nine sections, along with their interpretation and explanation. His book was first published in Lisbon in 1490 and has since been republished frequently. H. J. Ehrenreich began an edition of it in Klausenberg in 1927, based upon a different manuscript together with an extensive commentary, but did not complete it. An edition, known as Abudarham ha-Shalem with variant readings, according to the same manuscript, introduction, and supercommentary, by S. A. Wertheimer, was published in Jerusalem (1959, 1963) by his grandson. However, a comprehensive critical edition of this book is still lacking.