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Bidding Information
Lot #    15273
Auction End Date    7/18/2006 12:54:00 PM (mm/dd/yyyy)
Title Information
Title (English)    Hekhsher
Title (Hebrew)    הכשר
Author    [Community - Only Ed. - Unrecorded]
City    Miskolc
Publication Date    1897
Collection Information
Independent Item    This listing is an independent item not part of any collection
Description Information
   [1] p., 240:208 mm., light age staining, creased on folds. Not listed in bibliographies.
   A certification of the kosher status of a factory owned by Yitzhak Katz Goldstein, which produces all types of "Zelchvaren". The author states that a Yaakov Zvi Klein has been appointed Mashgiah (inspector) and that he is known to be a G-d fearing man, and true to every detail and is to be relied upon. Signed (though without an actual signature) by the Rabbi of Miskolc.

Miskolc, town in N.E. Hungary. Jews attended the Miskolc fairs at the beginning of the 18th century, and the first Jewish settlers earned their livelihood from the sale of alcoholic beverages. In 1717 the municipal council sought to expel them but reconsidered its attitude in 1728 and granted them the right to sell at the market. The number of Jews gradually increased, supplanting the Greek merchants from Macedonia. In 1765 several Jews owned houses. They enjoyed judicial independence and were authorized to impose fines and corporal punishment. Early in the 19th century there were two rabbis in the community. Many Jews acquired houses and land, but the majority engaged in commerce and crafts. When the local guild excluded Jews from membership in the unions, the Jews organized their own guild. The cemetery, dating from 1759, was still in use in 1970. The first synagogue was erected in 1765. The Great Synagogue was built in 1861; it was here that a choir, which aroused violent reactions on the part of the Orthodox, appeared for the first time. In 1870 the community joined the Neologians, but in 1875 a single Orthodox community was formed.

The educational institutions were among the most developed and ramified throughout the country. There were three yeshivot, an elementary school, two sub-secondary schools, and the only seminary for female teachers in Hungary. The Hasidim established a separate elementary school. In the course of time the percentage of Jews of the general population became the highest in Hungary (around 20%), numbering 1,096 in 1840, 3,412 in 1857; 4,117 in 1880, 10,029 in 1910, and 11,300 in 1920.

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Listing Classification
19th Century:    Checked
Other:    Hungary
Customs:    Checked
History:    Checked
First Editions:    Checked
Language:    Hebrew
Manuscript Type
Kind of Judaica
Posters:    Checked