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Bidding Information
Lot #    16834
Auction End Date    1/23/2007 10:36:30 AM (mm/dd/yyyy)
          
Title Information
Title (English)    Sha’arei Teshuvah
Title (Hebrew)    שערי תשובה
Author    R. Jerocham Fischel, editor
City    Leipzig
Publisher    Leopold Schneus
Publication Date    1858
          
Collection Information
Independent Item    This listing is an independent item not part of any collection
          
Description Information
Physical
Description
   xvi, 37 ff., quarto, 220:185 mm., wide margins, usual age staining, plate, bound in contemporary boards, split.
          
Paragraph 1    The R. Azriel Hildesheimer copy.
          
Detailed
Description
   Three-hundred-fifty-three responsa from the geonim that were in manuscript unseen in the library of the sage R. Moses Mordecai of Jerusalem. Printed previously in Salonika (1802) it is now brought to press by R. Jerocham Fischel with annotations. There is a lengthy scholarly preface from R. David Loria. The text, consisting of the responsa, is in two columns in rabbinic type. At the end of the volume is an index, by subject, of the responsa, organized in the order of the Shulhan Arukh, and a responsa from R. Solomon le-bet ha-Levi. Ch. Friedberg, in the Bet Eked Sefarim, records this printing as the first edition of Sha’arei Teshuvah.

The importance of the Geonim in Jewish history is due, in the first place, to the fact that for a number of centuries they occupied a unique position as the heads of their respective schools and as the recognized authorities of Judaism. Their influence probably extended chiefly to the Mohammedan countries, especially northern Africa and Spain; but in the course of time the Jews of Christian. Europe also came under the influence of the Babylonian schools. It was for this reason that the Babylonian Talmud came to be recognized as the basis for religio-legal decisions throughout Jewry and as the principal object of study. Even the facilities offered for such study to the Diaspora were due to the Geonim, since the geonic exposition of the Talmud, with regard to both text and contents, was directly or indirectly the chief aid in comprehending the Talmud. The importance of the period of the Geonim for the history of Judaism is further enhanced by the fact that the new Jewish science, which steadily developed side by side with Talmudic studies, was created by a gaon, and that the same gaon, Saadia, effectively opposed the disintegrating influences of Karaism. The activity of the Geonim may be seen most clearly in their responsa, in which they appear as the teachers of the entire Diaspora, covering in their religio-legal decisions a wide field of instruction. The Geonim officiated, in the first place, as directors of the academies, continuing as such the educational activity of the Amoraim and Saboraim. For while the Amoraim, through their interpretation of the Mishnah, gave rise to the Talmud, and while the Saboraim definitively edited it, the Geonim's task was to interpret it; for them it became the subject of study and instruction, and they gave religio-legal decisions in agreement with its teachings.

          
Paragraph 2    שנג תשובות הגאונים ... נדפסו בפעם ראשון בשאלוניקי תקס"ב אצל ספר נהרות דמשק [לר' שלמה קאמונדו], ועתה נדפסו מחדש בהגהה מדויקת ונוסף עליהם הערות ופירוש מאת ... מו"ה דוד לוריא זצוק"ל. ממני ירוחם פישל בן ... ר' צבי הירש הלוי.

על-פי שו"ת הגאונים, שאלוניקי תקס"ב, בתוספת (ספירה ראשונה): "הערות ופירוש מאת ... מו"ה דוד לוריא", מתוך ספרו קדמות ספר הזוהר, [קניגסברג תרט"ז], עיין: לוריא, דוד בן יהודה.

          
Reference
Description
   BE shin 2191; JE; CD-EPI 0183395
        
Associated Images
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Listing Classification
Period
19th Century:    Checked
  
Location
Germany:    Checked
  
Subject
Responsa:    Checked
  
Characteristic
Language:    Hebrew
  
Manuscript Type
  
Kind of Judaica