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Bidding Information
Lot #    16969
Auction End Date    1/23/2007 11:44:00 AM (mm/dd/yyyy)
Title Information
Title (English)    Milhemet ha-Magen
Title (Hebrew)    מלחמת המגן
Author    [Polemic - Women] R. Moses Meir Hai Eliakim
City    Casablanca
Publisher    Nouvelle
Publication Date    1925
Collection Information
Independent Item    This listing is an independent item not part of any collection
Description Information
   Only edition. [3], 14, [1], 16-55, 4, 8, 3, [1] pp., 205:136 mm., nice margins, light age staining. A very good copy bound in comtemporary half cloth and marbled paper boards, rubbed. First Hebrew book printed in Casablanca.
   The Casablanca Bet Din allowed a widow to undergo a Levirate marriage. R. H. Azulai published Magen ha-Dat (Djerba 1925) to oppose - this lot is the response.

Levirate marriage (yibbum) is the marriage between a widow whose husband died without offspring (the yevamah) and the brother of the deceased (the yavam or levir), as prescribed in Deuteronomy 25:5–6. When the levir does not marry the yevamah, the ceremony of Halizah takes place, whereby the woman becomes released from the levirate tie (zikkat ha-yibbum) and free to marry someone else. In the course of time some scholars accepted the view that the duty of the Halizah always took priority over that of levirate marriage, a view stemming from the attempt to reconcile the prohibition on a man marrying his brother's wife (Lev. 18:16) with the command of levirate marriage.

In the post-talmudic period, the dispute over the question of priority was continued. In the opinion of the Sura geonim, levirate marriage took priority, while those of Pumbedita thought otherwise, as did some of the Sura scholars (R. Hillai and R. Natronai). In the rabbinic period the Spanish scholars - particularly Alfasi (Yev. 39b), Maimonides (Yad, Yibbum 1:2), and R. Joseph Caro (Sh. Ar., EH, 165:1) - gave priority to levirate marriage, contending that otherwise there is no reason to shame and to submit the levir to the prescribed indignities. Such has actually been the custom, until the present day, of the Jews of Spain and of the oriental communities in North Africa from Morocco to Egypt - in Yemen, Babylonia, and Persia. This was also the case in Erez Israel (even at the end of the 1940s; see Mishpetei Uziel, EH no. 119) until the matter was settled by a takkanah of the chief rabbinate of Israel (in 5710–1949/50). The scholars of northern France and Germany -particularly Rashi, Rabbenu Tam, Asher b. Jehiel (Tur. EH 165), and Moses Isserles (Rema EH, 165:1) - held that Halizah takes priority though they did not all assign the same measure of priority to it. The acceptance of Rabbenu Gershom's decree (prohibiting polygamy) among Ashkenazi Jews apparently contributed greatly toward the entrenchment of the rule that Halizah takes priority - in order not to distinguish between a married and an unmarried levir - and Ashkenazi communities gradually came to adopt the practice of Halizah to the exclusion of levirate marriage.

Paragraph 2    ... מגן וצנה ... על רבנן דעסקי באורייתא ודיתבי בבי דינא הנרדפים חנם [על שהתירו ליבם ליבם את יבמתו] ... מבני בלי שם ... כחנניה חביב אזולאי בספריו "מגן הדת" בראשונה ובשניה [ג'רבה תרפ"ה] ... (כ"ד הנרדפים ... משה מאיר חי אליקים ס"ט בן ... הרב ... נסים אליקים ז"ל ... דוד אדהאן ... אברהם אביחצירא).

נגד דברים שכתב ר' חנניה חביב אזולאי בספרו "מגן הדת", חוברות 2-1, ג'רבה תרפ"ה, "פסק דין מענין יבום" בקזבלנקה.

   CD-EPI 0110487; EJ
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Listing Classification
20th Century:    Checked
Other:    Morocco
Polemics:    Checked
Responsa:    Checked
First Editions:    Checked
Language:    Hebrew
Manuscript Type
Kind of Judaica