||History of the Jews in Salzburg, still regarded as the authoritative work on the subject, by . Adolf Altmann, rabbi in Salzburg (1907–1915). This is part one, part two not having been published for another seventeen years (1930). The text is accompanied by several full page illustrations, not included in the pagination. In addition to the pictures of synagogues there is also an illustration of a of a sow with Jewish children nursing from it, based on a wooden image set up in the town hall in 1498 and later reproduced in marble, not removed until 1785.
Salzburg is a city and province in W. Austria, formerly archbishopric and duchy. The first mention of Jews there occurred as early as 803. A customs list from 905 contains references to Jewish salt merchants, and the term "Judendorf " occurs in sources dating from 1074, 1107, and 1197. The first clear reference to Jewish settlement occurred, however, during the tenure of Archbishop Conrad I (1106–47), who utilized Jews as financial advisers. A Judenstrasse in the market town of Admont is mentioned in a source dating from 1124. The oldest gravestone in the archbishopric, dating from 1240, was discovered in Friesach; 13th–century settlements were noted in Muehldorf, Hallein, and Pettau (Ptuj). The first references to Jews in the city of Salzburg itself dates from 1282. In 1267 the district council prescribed for Jewish males the wearing of a horn-shaped hat (cornutus pileus), and forbade their visiting Christian baths and employing Christian domestics. In 1285 a Jewish banker, Isaac, is noted among those who lent money to the treasury of the archbishop. Sources early in the 14th century indicate widespread Jewish commercial ventures with the investment of considerable capital. In the city a Jewish gate, Judenstrasse, and synagogue date from the period.
During the course of the Black Death persecutions of 1349, some 1,200 Jews in the archbishopric lost their lives, despite two unsuccessful efforts on the part of Pope Clement IV to intervene. Although the city councils prohibited the return of converted Jews to the faith they abandoned during the persecutions, Jews are found again in the archbishopric in 1352. Their return was facilitated by the liberality of Archbishop Ortolph (1344–65). Jews began to appear in large numbers in the city of Salzburg only in the 1370s, partly as a result of the bold economic policies of Archbishop Pilgrim II (1365–96). In 1377 a new place for worship was leased to the community to replace the one formerly used (in 1400 it was bought by three Jewish representatives of the community), and in the same year a cemetery was consecrated. Beginning in 1382 the archbishop began to call Jews to military service. The archbishopric in this period served as a sanctuary for Jews fleeing persecution elsewhere; in 1397, for example, a severe persecution of Jews in Styria and Carinthia brought a considerable number of refugees into Salzburg. A Salzburg scholar named Judah wrote a code on shehitah in this period. Despite the liberality of Salzburg's administration, however, an accusation of desecrating the Host (1404) was directed against the Jews of Hallein and Salzburg. In Salzburg many Jews were burned at the stake; the rest were driven out of the city and their property confiscated. By 1418 a relatively large number of Jews had once more settled in the city. In the same year the provincial council extended its regulation on the wearing of a distinctive hat for Jewish males to Jewish women as well, ordering that bells also be attached to their garments. From 1429 Archbishop John II followed a particularly enlightened policy toward the Jews, inviting Jewish refugees from Speyer, Zurich, Mainz, and Augsburg. Jews were given considerable freedom, e.g., they were allowed to acquire houses and other real estate. In 1439 a new synagogue was constructed in the city; in 1448 a mikveh was built in Hallein, where a synagogue also was in existence. In 1498 Jews were, however, accused of having stolen a sacred object of the church; as a result, the synagogues of both Hallein and Salzburg were destroyed and the Jews were banished in perpetuity from the archbishopric. Jewish traveling merchants traded in Salzburg during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Leibzoll was repealed in 1790 and two Court Jews were established in Salzburg by 1800. Nevertheless, until 1867 there was no permanent Jewish settlement in what had been the Austrian duchy of Salzburg for 350 years; in 1867 full equality was granted to the Jews.
R. Adolf Altmann (1879–1944) was a rabbi, historian, philosopher. Born in Hunsdorf, Hungary, Altmann studied at the yeshivot of Hunsdorf and Pressburg, and graduated as doctor of philosophy from Berne University. An early follower of Herzl, he worked for the acceptance of religious Zionism in the face of hostility on the part of the Hungarian Orthodox rabbinate. He was a delegate to the First Mizrachi Congress in Pressburg, correspondent for Die Welt (1905), and editor of the Ungarische Wochenschrift (1904). He where he wrote the two-volume Geschichte der Juden in Stadt and Land Salzburg (1913, 1930), which is still the authoritative work on the subject, and in Merano. In World War I he served as senior chaplain in the Austro-Hungarian Army, receiving the Golden Cross of Merit; in witness to Jewish service in the war he collected testimonials from military commanders on the conduct of their Jewish soldiers. From 1920 to 1938 he served as chief rabbi – the last one – of Trier, one of the oldest Jewish communities in Germany. The results of his historical research into the community's origins were published in Das Früheste Vorkommen der Juden in Deutschland; Juden in romischen Trier (1931), which threw new light on the subject, dating the settlement of Jews in Trier to the end of the 3rd and early 4th century C.E. In 1938 he immigrated to Holland and met his death in Auschwitz in 1944.