||Regulations issued under the royal imprimatur, Charles, by the grace of God king of France (Charles, par la grace de Dieu). These regulations deal with governmental matters and are issued in the name of the king, here Charles X of France. Charles X (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) ruled as King of France and Navarre from May 20, 1824 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated. He was the last king of the senior Bourbon line to reign over France.
Charles-Philippe was born on October 7, 1757 in the Palace of Versailles in France, the fifth son of Louis, Dauphin of France, and his wife, Marie-Josèphe of Saxony. His paternal grandparents were King Louis XV of France and his consort, Queen Maria Leszczyńska. As the grandson of the king, he was a Petit-Fils de France. His maternal grandparents were King Augustus III of Poland, also the Elector of Saxony, and his wife, the Archduchess Maria Josepha, daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I. At birth, he received the title of comte d'Artois. During most of the reign of his oldest surviving brother, King Louis XVI, he was fourth in line to the throne after the King's two young sons and his brother, the comte de Provence. However, after the accession of the comte de Provence as King Louis XVIII of France in 1814, he became heir presumptive and was generally known as Monsieur, the traditional title of the eldest of the king's younger brothers. Charles was charming, affectionate and a witty conversationalist. Despite a flurry of youthful hedonism, he was also devoutly religious. A strong belief in the Roman Catholic Church bound him closely to his younger sister, Madame Élisabeth. Charles attended the French and Spanish siege of Gibraltar as an observer in 1782, and saw the destruction of the floating batteries. As a young prince he was a noted womanizer, popular, well-mannered and entertaining. His political awakening started with the first great crisis of the monarchy in 1786, after which he headed the reactionary faction at the court of Louis XVI. The comte d'Artois supported the removal of the aristocracy's financial privileges, but he was opposed to any reduction in the social privileges enjoyed by either the Church or the nobility. He believed that France's finances should be reformed without the monarchy being overthrown. In his own words, it was "time for repair, not demolition." He also enraged the Third Estate (politicians representing the commoners) by objecting to every initiative to increase their voting power in 1789. This prompted criticism from his brother, who accused him of being "plus royaliste que le roi" ("more royalist than the King"). Louis died on 16 September 1824, and his brother, aged 67, succeeded him – the only normal succession of French heads of state during the 19th century. The new king took the regnal name Charles X, thus definitively taking the position that Charles, cardinal de Bourbon, who was recognized under that name by some elements of French society in the late 16th century, was not legitimate. Charles's coronation on 28 May 1825 deliberately harked back to the Ancien Régime: the sacre du roi (consecration) was performed by the Archbishop of Rheims in his cathedral, the traditional coronation venue for French kings, amid much theatrical pomp. It even featured a ceremony where Charles touched sufferers of the King's Evil, scrofula, the last time this ancient ritual was performed. This deliberate impression of royal splendour was in contrast to his predecessor and successor, neither of whom had a coronation (the only other nineteenth century French coronations were Napoleon's in Notre Dame in 1804 and Napoleon III's, also at Notre Dame, on January 30, 1853.)
The Villèle cabinet resigned in 1827 under pressure from the liberal press. His successor, the vicomte de Martignac, tried to steer a middle course, but in 1829 Charles appointed prince Jules Armand de Polignac (Louise de Polastron's nephew), an ultra-reactionary, as chief minister. Polignac initiated French colonization in Algeria. His dissolution of the Chamber of Deputies, his July Ordinances, which set up rigid control of the press, and his restriction of suffrage resulted in the July Revolution. Charles abdicated on 30 July 1830 at Rambouillet in favor of his grandson, the duc de Bordeaux, and left for England. However, the liberal, bourgeois-controlled Chamber of Deputies refused to confirm the duc de Bordeaux as Henri V. In a vote largely boycotted by conservative deputies, the body declared the French throne vacant, and elevated Louis-Philippe, duc d'Orléans, to power.
After a sojourn in Britain, Charles later settled in Prague in the present-day Czech Republic. He died from cholera on November 6, 1836 in the palace of Count Michael Coronini von Cronberg (Graf Michele Coronini von Cronberg) in the old hamlet of Grafenberg, now in the town of Gorizia, in present-day Italy, tended by his niece Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte. He is buried in the Church of Saint Mary of the Annunciation on Kostanjevica Hill, on what is now the Slovenian side of the border in Nova Gorica.