||Title: "Rot und glühend ist das Auge des Juden" ; Gedichte zu 8 Radierungen von Jacob Steinhardt.
Jakob Steinhardt (1887–1968), Israel painter and printmaker. He was born in Zerkow, Poland, and left home in 1906 to study in Berlin, first at the Museum of Arts and Crafts, and then under the engraver Hermann Struck. From 1909 he studied in Paris under Laurens and Matisse. He returned to Berlin in 1912 and, together with Ludwig Meidner and Richard Janthur, founded the Pathetiker Group, with whom he exhibited. He served as a soldier in Lithuania and Macedonia during World War I, and his on-the-spot drawings were exhibited in Berlin in 1917. In 1933 he left Germany to settle in Jerusalem. In 1949 he was appointed head of the graphic department of the Bezalel School of Art, of which he was director between 1953 and 1957. In 1955 he received the first international prize in graphic arts at the SCo Paulo Biennale, and in 1960 the Arta Liturgica Prize at the Venice Biennale. Steinhardt was an early disciple of German expressionism, and his early subject matter was almost exclusively religious and social. He made engravings and lithographs; in Jerusalem he devoted himself almost exclusively to woodcuts. At first he depicted Jerusalem scenes and inhabitants, but from 1950 he used biblical subjects from the Book of Jonah (1952), the Book of Ruth (1955), landscapes, and imaginary themes. While his woodcuts of the 1930s are characterized by sharp contrasts between black and white, his later work concentrated on rhythm, and color was often introduced.
Arno Nadel (1878–1943), German poet and liturgical musicologist. Born in Vilna, Lithuania, Nadel studied liturgical music under Eduard Birnbaum in Koenigsberg. In 1895, he entered the Jewish Teachers' Institute in Berlin and spent the rest of his life in Berlin. His first book, a volume of aphorisms and verse entitled Aus vorletzten und letzten Gruenden (1909), betrayed the influence of Nietzschean philosophy. His later works dealt mainly with biblical and Jewish themes. They include the play "Adam," staged in Karlsruhe in 1917; Das Jahr des Juden (1920), a collection of 12 poems; Rot und gluehend ist das Auge des Juden (1920); Der Suendenfall (1920); and Juedische Volkslieder (1923). His most important verse collection, Der Ton (1921, enlarged 1926), constitutes his Jewish reply to the nihilism of his time. He also published a German translation of An-Ski's drama, Der Dybbuk (1921), Der weissagende Dionysos (1934), a collection of his later poetry, was republished after World War II.
In 1916 Nadel was appointed conductor of the choir at the synagogue in the Pestalozzistrasse, and later became musical supervisor of the Berlin synagogues. He devoted much effort to the collection and study of synagogal music and East European Jewish folk song, searching for manuscripts and noting oral traditions. Many of these he published and discussed in the music supplements of the Berlin Gemeindeblatt and Ost und West, and in his articles on Jewish music in the Juedisches Lexicon, and the German Encyclopaedia Judaica. Some of the Yiddish folk songs were also published separately, as in his Jonteff Lieder (1919) and Juedische Liebeslieder (1923). Drawing on his researches, Nadel restored old traditions and raised the standards of the synagogue choirs. His manuscript collection included several unique cantors' manuals, such as that of Judah Elias of Hanover (1744). All of this he planned to incorporate in a multivolume compendium of synagogal music entitled Hallelujah, which was to have been published under the auspices of the Berlin community. The preparation of the earlier volumes was apparently well under way before Nadel was transported to Auschwitz, where he was murdered. His papers are reported to have been hidden in time, but most have not been recovered.
Nadel was himself a composer, and wrote the incidental music for Stefan Zweig's "Jeremias" (1918). A man of many talents, he also excelled as a graphic artist and as a painter of landscapes and portraits.