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Bidding Information
Lot #    21925
Auction End Date    11/18/2008 11:16:30 AM (mm/dd/yyyy)
          
Title Information
Title (English)    Group of Letters
Title (Hebrew)    אוסף מכתבים
Author    [Ms. - Community]
City    Holland
Publication Date    1906-24
          
Collection Information
Independent Item    This listing is an independent item not part of any collection
          
Description Information
Physical
Description
   Various sizes, light age staining, all in plastic sleeves.
          
Paragraph 1    179 pieces of correspondence by and to Jewish communities in Holland. The letters are in Dutch with some Hebrew and run from 1906 through 1924, the majority being from 1914 and 1922-24. The topics include marriages, deaths, kashrut issues, finances, jobs, synagogal issues, indeed the full gamut of community affairs.

Many of the items are addressed to R. S.J.H. Hirsch, rabbi of Zwolle. Among the writers are members of the following distinguished families: Auerbach, Bergh, Engel, Frank, Fuld, Gelderen, Hirsch, Mendels, Menko, Messcher, Nou, Oppenheim, Salomons, Schaap, Serphos, Simons, Spanjaard, Turksma, Vromen, Wolff, and many more.

          
Detailed
Description
   Jews seem not to have lived in the province of Holland before 1593; but a few references to them are in existence which distinctly mention them as present in the other provinces at an earlier date, especially after their expulsion from France in 1321 and the persecutions in Hainaut and the Rhine provinces. Jews have been settled in Nimeguen, the oldest settlement, in Doesburg, Zutphen, and in Arnhem since 1404. In 1349 the Duke of Gelderland was authorized by the Emperor Louis IV. of Germany to receive Jews in his duchy. They paid a tax, granted services, and were protected by the law. In Arnhem, where a Jew is mentioned as physician, the magistrate defended them against the hostilities of the populace. At Nimeguen, Jews are mentioned in 1339 as paying taxes; Reinold the duke received 132 "pond" (317 dollars) in this way annually. In 1385 Zalichmann Nathanswen van Berck and his son David were allowed to live in Roermond ten years for 20 gulden (8 dollars) annually. In 1382 the Jews of Nimeguen had a cemetery, in 1426 a synagogue. When Jews settled in the diocese of Utrecht does not appear. In 1444 they were expelled from the city of Utrecht, but they were tolerated in the village of Maarsen, two hours distant, though their condition was not fortunate. Until 1789 no Jew might pass the night in Utrecht; for this reason the community of Maarsen was one of the most important in Holland. Jews were admitted to Zealand by Albert, Duke of Bavaria. There exists a letter, dated 1359, in which the duke promises Italian merchants to give no authorization to any Jew to reside in Goes for the space of four years. In 1361 is mentioned a Jew of Geertruidenberg, not far from Goes.

In 1477, by the marriage of Mary of Burgundy to the Archduke Maximilian, son of Emperor Frederick IV., the Netherlands were united to Austria and its possessions passed to the crown of Spain. In the sixteenth century, owing to the cruel persecutions of Charles V. and Philip II. of Spain, the Netherlands became involved in a series of desperate and heroic struggles. Charles V. had, in 1522, issued a proclamation against Christians who were suspected of being lax in the faith and against Jews who had not been baptized in Gelderland and Utrecht; and he repeated these edicts in 1545 and 1549. In 1571 the Duke of Alba notified the authorities of Arnhem that all Jews living there should be seized and held until the disposition to be made of them had been determined upon. In Wageningen, in 1572, there were three Jewish families which were expelled on the occasion of a papal indulgence. In 1581, however, the memorable declaration of independence issued by the deputies of the United Provinces deposed Philip from his sovereignty; religious peace was guaranteed by article 13 of the "Unie van Utrecht." As a consequence the persecuted Jews of Spain and Portugal turned toward Holland as a place of refuge.

          
Reference
Description
   JE
        
Associated Images
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Listing Classification
Period
20th Century:    Checked
  
Location
Holland:    Checked
  
Subject
History:    Checked
  
Characteristic
Language:    Dutch
  
Manuscript Type
Letters:    Checked
  
Kind of Judaica