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Bidding Information
Lot #    22024
Auction End Date    11/18/2008 12:05:30 PM (mm/dd/yyyy)
Title Information
Title (English)    Seder Tefillah - Yemenite
Title (Hebrew)    סדר תפלה
Author    [Liturgy]
City    Vienna
Publisher    M. Knoepflmacher
Publication Date    1896
Collection Information
Independent Item    This listing is an independent item not part of any collection
Description Information
   [2], 430 pp. octavo 155:90 mm., usual age staining. A very good copy bound in contemporary boards.
   Order of prayers for weekdays, Shabbat, Rosh Hodesh for the entire year according to the custom of the Jews of Sana and all of Yemen, according to the Rambam with additional nussahot according to the geonim. Also included are services for weddings, fast days, Megillat Esther. At the end is a listing of dates and the molad. In addition there are halakhot in Judeo-Arabic.

The tradition of the Jews of Yemen refers to San‘a as Resh Galūt, namely one of the first places in Yemen in which they settled when they left Jerusalem 40 years before the destruction of the First Temple (586 B.C.E.), responding to Jeremiah's prophecies about destruction. According to that tradition, the Jews first settled in Barāsh, at that time a fortified town at the top of Jabal Nuqūm, about another 550 meters above the city. Eduard Glaser, who visited the place in 1882, found there Jewish inscriptions dated to 589 C.E. Rabbi Joseph Qāfih visited the place in 1937 and found a few vestiges of a synagogue and two ritual baths. Later on the Jews went down the mount to Qasr (the Citadel of) San‘a, the most ancient and the higher part of the city, adjacent to the quarter of al-qa’ī', after which many Jewish families are called al-qa’ī'ī, to give evidence that indeed Jews lived for some time in the Qasr, which was known as Qasr Sām ibn Nuh, according to a Jewish-Muslim tradition that it was built by that biblical figure (i.e., Shem). Al-Rāz, a Yemenite Muslim chronographer, writes that in 991 there were 1040 houses in San‘a, 35 of them occupied by Jews. We have some more solid information regarding the next move of the Sanāni Jews from Barāsh and the Qasr to their first neighborhood in the city between the walls, in the eastern quarter today known as al-Fulayī. All sources attest that Jews were forcefully expelled from the heights of Jabal Nuqūm as part of anti-Jewish discriminatory and humiliating regulations. This did not take place immediately after the Muslim occupation of Yemen in 629, but many years later, probably under the rule of the Egyptian Ayyubids (1173–1254). Al-Fulayī was located at the eastern end of the city, not far from the Sā'ilah, the wādī dividing the city from north to south. The Jews first built their new houses south of the gate leading to the close town of Shu'ūb, near the Wādī al-Marbakī. Rabbi Joseph Qāfih informs us that, while he was visiting a Muslim scholar in al-Fulayī in the early 1940s, the latter showed him that his house was originally a Jewish one, as attested by the roof of the living room built to be removed for the Feast of Tabernacles. The Jewish origin of many houses in the city and their typical structure was determined as well by the German anthropologist Carl Rathjens, who visited Yemen in the 1920s and the 1930s. It is not known how long the Jews lived in this place, but it seems that for a certain period they still kept their synagogue in the Qasr, as attested by remains of a Bible on which it was noted that it belonged to the Hanīsat al-yahūd fi Hārat al-Qasr (the synagogue of the Jews in the neighborhood of al-Qasr) and dated to some years after the Jews were expelled from there by the Ayyubids.

For unknown reasons, and in an unknown year, the Jews had again to abandon their houses in the quarter of al-Fulayī and to move westward and build new houses on both sides of the Sā'ilah. There they suffered from the occasionally drastic floods of the Sā'ilah. From different documents one may deduce that this happened between 1615 and 1662, but from a note in a manuscript (see below) we can determine that it happened already in 1457. The spiritual center of the Jewish Sanani community was the central synagogue, kanīsat al-'ulamā' or Midrash ha-Hakhamim (the Academy of the Scholars), which moved with the Jews from one place to another. It functioned as a Supreme Court of Appeal not only in regard to Jewish courts throughout Yemen, but in regard to the central Jewish court in San‘a itself. From a note in a manuscript in the library of Leiden we learn that the old synagogue of San‘a was destroyed in 1457 under the rule of Ahmad 'Amir, the founder of the Dāhirī dynasty, and that the one located in the Sā'ilah was destroyed in 1679. This synagogue was later restored as a mosque – Masjid al-Jalā' (the Mosque of the Expulsion). The destruction of the latter synagogue was part of the big tragic event of Galut Mawza' in which almost all the Jews of Yemen were expelled from their neighborhoods in cities, towns, and villages to the ancient small town in the west of Yemen, not far from the port town of Mokha. That was a result of the Jewish messianic movement in 1667, when some Jews in Yemen, headed by a Slaymān Jamāl, a Jewish Sanani scholar, followed the messianic Shabbatean movement and tried to seize control of San‘a from the Muslim governor in the Qasr. The Jews were aggressively punished and, after a legal-religious debate between Muslim scholars of Yemen, Imām al-Mutawakkil Ismā'īl (1644–1676) accepted the conclusion that the Jews had lost their right to live as dhimmis (a protected community) under the Zaydi imamate and ordered his heir al-Mahdī Ahmad ibn al-Hasan (1676–1681) to expel all the Jews. When the expulsion edict was canceled in 1681, the Jews of San‘a, like Jews in other localities throughout Yemen, were not allowed to return to their neighborhoods and houses within the walls and had to build for themselves meager new houses outside the city, close to the Muslim garden neighborhood of Bīr al-'Azab. This new Jewish neighborhood was called Qā' al-Yahūd (the valley of the Jews), which for almost 140 years was completely exposed to assaults of the tribal warriors. Only in 1818 was Qā' al-Yahūd annexed to the city by a protecting wall.

Paragraph 2    לימי החול והשבת וראש חדש לכל ימות השנה כמנהג ק"ק צנעא... וכל מחוז התימן, על פי... הרמב"ם... עם קצת הוספות אשר נתוספו בנוסח התפלה על פי הגאונים ז"ל הנוהגים לאמרם פה במחוז הנז'. הן לא הובא על מזבח הדפוס מעולם... נדבה רוח... יוסף בן סעיד פנחס הכהן... להביאו אל... הדפוס... נעתק ומסודר ומוגה ע"י יצחק רוזנבירג.

עם מעט דינים והנהגות בערבית-יהודית. עם סדר חנוכה ופורים, ברכות הנהנין, ברכות שונות ועוד (עמ' שלא-שס); סליחות; תפילות לארבע צומות (עמ' שסא-תא); מגילת אסתר בערבית-יהודית, תרגום ר' סעדיה גאון (עמ' תג-תכג); "לוח הקביעות והמולדות לד' שנים" (עמ' תכד ואילך). ראינו טופס בו נשמט מן השער שמו של יצחק רוזנברג. הסידור בנוסח תימן המקורי ("בלדי"). נערך על ידי ר' יחיא קאפח. עיין: יוסף קאפח, רבנים יוצאי תימן בירושלם, בתוך: סעי יונה, יהודי תימן בישראל, 1983, עמ' 84.

   EJ; CD-EPI 0308157
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Listing Classification
19th Century:    Checked
Other:    Austria
Liturgy:    Checked
Language:    Hebrew
Manuscript Type
Kind of Judaica