||The printer of this edition, Menasseh ben Israel was born in 1604 on the Portuguese Island of Madeira. Born into a Marrano family, he was baptized as Manuel Dias Soeiro. In his childhood his family immigrated to Amsterdam and openly returned to Judaism, and thereafter his name was changed to Menasseh ben Israel. As a young boy he studied at the Yeshiva of the Portuguese community in the city and when he reached the age of 18 was appointed preacher in the Neveh Shalom community in place of the deceased Rabbi Isaac Uziel. His wide secular education and his command of many languages won him a reputation among Christian scholars, who considered him the greatest Jewish scholar of his generation. He wrote books in Spanish and Latin on theological and philosophical subjects and even wrote several works in Hebrew. His lengthy work reconciling discordant passages of the Bible brought him fame among Jews and Christians. In 1626 Menasseh ben Israel established the first Hebrew printing press in Holland. Between 1646 and 1652 his sons Joseph and Samuel managed the press. In 1655, towards the end of his life, Menasseh ben Israel was invited to England, where, supported by Cromwell, he presented his request to the Parliament. Unsuccessful at first, he finally won a partial victory, and Jews were thenceforth allowed, with some restrictions, to settle in England and were granted civil and religious freedom. Menasseh ben Israel died in 1657 and was buried in the Portuguese cemetery in Ouderkerk.
||Commentary to Daniel by Don Isaac b. Judah Abrabanel (1437-1508). Don Isaac received a careful education and was a pupil of R. Joseph Hayyim, rabbi of Lisbon. Well versed in Talmudic literature and in the learning of his time, endowed with a clear and keen mind, and full of enthusiasm for Judaism, he devoted his early years to the study of Jewish religious philosophy,and when scarcely twenty years old wrote on the original form of the natural elements, on the most vital religious questions, on prophecy, etc. His political abilities also attracted attention while he was still young. He entered the service of King Alfonso V. of Portugal as treasurer, and soon won the confidence of his master.
Notwithstanding his high position and the great wealth he had inherited from his father, his love for his afflicted brethren was unabated. When Arzilla, in Morocco, was taken by the Moors, and the Jewish captives were sold as slaves, he contributed largely to the funds needed to manumit them, and personally arranged for collections throughout Portugal. He also wrote to his learned and wealthy friend Jehiel, of Pisa, in behalf of the captives. After the death of Alfonso he was obliged to relinquish his office, having been accused by King John II. of connivance with the duke of Bragança, who had been executed on the charge of conspiracy. Don Isaac, warned in time, saved himself by a hasty flight to Castile (1483). His large fortune was confiscated by royal decree. At Toledo, his new home, he occupied himself at first with Biblical studies, and in the course of six months produced an extensive commentary on the books of Joshua, Judges, and Samuel. But shortly afterward he entered the service of the house of Castile. Together with his friend, the influential Don Abraham Senior, of Segovia, he undertook to farm the revenues and to supply provisions for the royal army, contracts that he carried out to the entire satisfaction of Queen Isabella. During the Moorish war Abrabanel advanced considerable sums of money to the government. When the banishment of the Jews from Spain was decreed, he left nothing undone to induce the king to revoke the edict. In vain did he offer him 30,000 ducats ($68,400, nominal value). With his brethren in faith he left Spain and went to Naples, where, soon after, he entered the service of the king. For a short time he lived in peace undisturbed; but when the city was taken by the French, bereft of all his possessions, he followed the young king, Ferdinand, in 1495, to Messina; then went to Corfu; and in 1496 settled in Monopoli, and lastly (1503) in Venice, where his services were employed in negotiating a commercial treaty between Portugal and the Venetian republic (Zurita, "Historia del Rey Don Fernando el Católico," v. 342a).