||Only edition of this very rare Hebrew edition of the tribulations of the Jews in Spain attributed the scholar Ludwig Philippson. The full title is Galut Sefarad, o, ha-Anusim be-Erets-Shpanya, referring to the conversos (Marranos), that is, the secret Jews forcibly converted to Catholicism but who, at risk of their lives, secretly practices Judaism. In addition, to the history of these oppressed Jews, Galut Sefarad notes the battles fought by Spainat the time of the expulsion of the Jews (1492), the discovery of America, and the conquest of Grenada. Although the title page indicates that Ludwig Philippson was the author it appears that it was in fact written in Russian by his brother Feivish and, according to a manuscript, actually translated into Hebrew by Eliezer Belinson.
Ludwig Philippson (1811–1889) achieved renown as the founder of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums (AZJ, 1837–1922), which he edited until his death. Ludwig was an avid student of both Hebrew and classical literature in Dessau and Halle. After graduation from Berlin University (1829–33), aged 22, he took up the position of a preacher and teacher in the Magdeburg Jewish community. Though following the practice of Reform Judaism – he preached in German and introduced the organ and the rite of confirmation – he tried to steer a middle course between Reform and Orthodoxy . He was among the initiators of the Rabbinical Conferences of Brunswick (1844), Frankfurt/Main (1845), and Breslau (1846), but was critical of their decisions. One of his projects was the establishment of a modern institution for training scholars, rabbis, and teachers. From 1834 Philippson started editing several periodicals, first the monthly Israelitisches Predigt- und Schulmagazin (1834–36), followed by his famous AZJ, the most important Jewish weekly of the 19th century, which was also dedicated to the struggle for emancipation in all parts of Germany and Europe and fought discrimination and antisemitism. From 1839–53, he published a popular translation and commentary of the Bible, which went through three editions (18582, 18783), together with a revised edition illustrated by Gustav Doré (1875). Along with I.M. Jost , A. Jellinek , and others he founded the Institut zur Foerderung der Israelitischen Literatur (1854–73), whose main achievement was the publication of H. Graetz 's Geschichte der Juden (1853–76). In 1862, he had to resign as rabbi of Magdeburg because he had become almost blind. He moved to Bonn, where he continued his journalistic and literary work until his death. He was among the founders of the Israelitische Bibelanstalt (1862), the Deutsch-Israelitischer Gemeindebund (1869), and the Hochschule fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums (1872). Ludwig Philippson had nine children. Three of his sons attained fame in their respective fields.