||Bi-lingual Hebrew-Judeo-Arabic comprehensive prayer-book for Tishah be-Av (ninth of Av). Alon Bakhut Hadash has been translated by Rahmim b. Shalom from the Hebrew Alon Bakhut by R. Hayyim b. Solomon haKohen (c. 1827-1925) of Tripoli. It has approbations and introductory material. Extensive halakhot are in Judeo-Arabic but prayers, beginning with Tikkun Hazot, are in Hebrew. Included are kinnot, Kazzot Hannah, and dinnei Zekhor le-Hurban.
Tishah be-Av (ninth of Av) is the traditional day of mourning for the destruction of the Temples in Jerusalem. The First Temple, built by King Solomon, was destroyed by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C.E. on the 10th of Av, according to Jeremiah 3:12, whereas in the corresponding record in II Kings 25:8–9, the date is given as the 7th of Av. The Tosefta Ta'anit 4:10 (also Ta'an. 29a) explains this discrepancy by stating that the destruction of the outer walls and of the courtyard started on the 7th of Av while the whole edifice was destroyed on the 10th of Av. R. Johanan declared that he would have fixed the fast on the 10th of Av because it was on that day that the greater part of the calamity happened. The rabbis however decided that it is more fitting to commemorate the "beginning of the calamity." The Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 C.E., on the 10th of Av, according to the historian Josephus (Wars, 6:249–50). This day is still observed as a day of mourning by the Karaites. The Talmud (Ta'an. 29a), however, gives the date as the 9th of Av, which became accepted as the anniversary of both destructions. The Talmud justifies the 9th of Av as the major day of mourning because a series of calamities occurred on this day throughout Jewish history. The Mishnah (Ta'an. 4:6) enumerates five disasters: (1) on the 9th of Av it was decreed that the Children of Israel, after the Exodus from Egypt, should not enter the Promised Land; (2) the First and (3) the Second Temples were destroyed; (4) Bethar, the last stronghold of the leaders of the Bar Kokhba war, was captured in 135 C.E.; and (5) one year later, in 136, the Roman emperor Hadrian established a heathen temple on the site of the Temple and rebuilt Jerusalem as a pagan city which was renamed Aelia Capitolina and which the Jews were forbidden to enter. The expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 is said also to have occurred on the 9th of Av.
The following rules are observed on the fast of Tishah be-Av: (1) Complete abstention from food and drink. (2) Bathing is strictly forbidden. Washing of the face and hands is permissible for cleansing purposes only (Ta'an. 13a). (3) The use of any oils for anointing and the application of perfumes are forbidden, as is sexual intercourse. (4) It is forbidden to put on footwear made of leather. Therefore the tenth blessing in the Morning Benedictions, originally recited when putting on shoes, is omitted. (5) One must sit either on the ground or on a low stool. (6) It is customary to abstain from work and business because Tishah be-Av was regarded as an inauspicious day. A person who works on the 9th of Av would derive no benefit from his efforts (Ta'an. 30b). (7) The study of Torah is forbidden because it is a source of joy, except for the reading of the Scroll of Lamentations and its Midrash (Lamentations Rabbah), the Book of Job, the curses in Leviticus (26:14–42), some chapters in Jeremiah (e.g., 39), the aggadic tales in the Talmud describing the destruction of Jerusalem (e.g., Git. 55b–58a), and similar texts. The mourning rites of Tishah be-Av are reflected in the following changes in the synagogue liturgy and usage: (1) the lights in the synagogue are dimmed and only a few candles are lit, as a symbol of the darkness which has befallen Israel. In some rites (Sephardi, Yemenite), it is customary to extinguish all lights immediately after the conclusion of the evening service prior to the reading of the Kinot (Dirges), and the oldest member of the congregation or the ḥazzan then announces: "This year is the… so and so… since the destruction of the Holy Temple." Afterward he addresses the congregation with words of chastisement and repentance in the spirit of the saying: "Each generation in which the Temple is not rebuilt should regard itself as responsible for its destruction." This is answered by wailing and crying. Then the lights are lit again. (2) The curtain of the Ark is removed in memory of the curtain in the Holy of Holies in the Temple which, according to talmudic legend, was stabbed and desecrated by Titus. In some Sephardi synagogues where the Ark normally has no curtain, a black curtain is hung and the Torah scrolls themselves are draped in black mantles. (3) The congregants sit on low benches, footstools, or on the floor as mourners do during the shivah period. (4) The ḥazzan recites the prayers in a monotonous and melancholy tune. (5) Some people change their customary seats in the synagogue. (6) In some congregations the Torah scroll is placed on the floor and ashes put on it while the congregants recite the words "the crown is fallen from our head" (Lam. 5:16), or other appropriate verses (see Sof. 18:7).
|| תלקיט דינים די בין המצרים וט"ב [וט' באב] וגירו. מתרגם (מלשוננו הקדושה לשפת ערב... הנהוג אצלנו פה טריפולי) מן ספר אלון בכות [ליוורנו תרמ"ג] אלי חבר... כמוהרח"ך [ר' חיים הכהן] ז"ל... בתוספת נפך מהמתרגם (רחמים עגיב) ... מפי סופרים וספרים (ועם תפלת מנחה של יום התענית צבור... ודילגו קצת קינות אשר אין מנהגנו לאומרם)... טובים השנים... סי' ציון חדאד (בכר... יקותיאל)... וסי' דוד ג'נאח (בכר... לגאלי)... באש ידפסוה...מיע דיני ברכות וגירו... נע"ר [נאום עגיב רחמים] בן... שלום ... לבית עגיב ז"ל... שנת ע'ט'ר'ת' שנת טובתך
כולל גם תפילות וקינות לתשעה באב, תקון חצות, מגלת איכה וספר איוב. מנוקד. הקדמות המתרגם, רחמים עגיב, בעברית. בסוף הקדמתו הראשונה הוא מודה לאחיו רבי בן ציון עגיב "אשר השתדיל[!] בכל כחו... והגיה את כל הספר הזה". דף קטז,א: פזמון לביאת הגואל, מאת המתרגם. פותח: רם הוא דר בשמי ערץ. השער בצבע אדום-ירוק.