Interestingly, TOZ, the publisher has a history of its own. The Towarzystwo Ochrony Zdrowia Ludności Żydowskiej (Society for Safeguarding the Health of the Jewish Population; TOZ) was established in Warsaw in 1921.TOZ set itself the goal of extending the life expectancy of the Jews of Poland and looking after their health by promoting hygiene and providing adequate nutrition for infants and children. The organization focused on welfare activities for needy families and contributed to a substantial decrease in infant mortality among Jews. TOZ operatives provided instruction to pregnant women on such topics as nutrition and food products for babies. By 1929, only 6 Jewish newborns per 100 died (in Warsaw) as opposed to 12 per 100 non-Jewish babies. The organization provided vaccines against such infectious diseases as smallpox at Jewish schools. TOZ distributed food rations to 36,000 children at Jewish schools in 69 towns. It also organized summer camps for about 14,000 needy children who suffered from poor health due to inadequate living conditions and poor nutrition. Additionally, TOZ established hospitals for indigent Jews.