||Anti-Mizrahi and anti-Zionist poster by the "Carpathian Scholars" a.k.a. Munkacs.
Inspired by R. Zvi Hersh Shapira, the rebbe of Munkacs, who toward the end of his life, opposed the efforts of the German Orthodox sector to associate the Hungarian Orthodox in founding Agudat Israel, through whose influence the leaders of German Orthodoxy sought to strengthen the religious elements in Germany. R. Zevi Shapira, however, feared that a close collaboration would result in a weakening of Orthodoxy in Hungary. Although he appreciated the efforts of the German Orthodox to strengthen their ranks he did not wish to see what he regarded as their liberal way of life penetrate to Hungary. He was active in strengthening traditional education and objected to the compulsory attendance by Jewish children in the general schools. He also opposed the special schools which had been established in several communities so that Jewish youth should not have to attend school on Sabbath, and called upon his Hasidim not to send their children to them. R. Zevi Hirsch's call was authorotative in both the halakhic and mystic spheres.