||The first is Netivot Olam a Hebrew translation of The Old Paths; or, A Comparison of the Principles and Doctrines of Modern Judaism with the Religion of Moses and the Prophets (London 1837) by the Rev. Alexander McCaul. It is a missionary work comprised of a series of articles that appeared from Friday, January 15, 1836 through Friday, March 3, 1837. The book begins with an Advertisement, which is in fact a preface, an index, and then the text. The Advertisement begins “The reader will perceive by the date at the head of each number, that the following papers were published weekly, and from the contents, he will readily infer that they were intended for distribution amongst those Jews, who still adhere to the Rabbinic system.” Old Paths, an elaborate attack upon Jewish legalism, published weekly for over a year, was translated into several languages, including Hebrew. The author, Rev. Alexander McCaul (1799-1863), was an English Christian missionary. He became interested in the Jews, and was sent as a missionary to Poland in 1821, where he studied Hebrew and German at Warsaw. In 1822 he went to interview the czar in regard to the conversion of the Jews. McCaul wrote vigorously against the blood accusation, and refused the Protestant bishopric of Jerusalem, on the ground that it should be held by a Jew by birth. He became professor of Hebrew and rabbinical literature at King's College, London.
The second and third works are refutations of the above. Ahiya ha-Shilone by Isaac Baer Levinsohn (Ribal, 1788–1860). Levinsohn is one of the founders of the Haskalah in Russia. A child prodigy, he began heder at the age of three and composed a Kabalistic work at the age of nine. At ten, Levinsohn was versed in Talmudic lore, and knew the Hebrew Bible by heart. He mastered the Russian language, an unusual achievement for a Russian Jew of that time. From 1813 to 1820 Levinsohn lived in Eastern Galicia, where he was befriended by such leaders of the Haskalah as Nahman Krochmal, Isaac Erter, Joseph Perl, and S. J. Rapoport. From 1820–23 he spread the ideas of the Haskalah as a private tutor in wealthy homes in Berdichev and other towns. He attempted to persuade the Russian authorities to mitigate the persecution of the Jews and to introduce reforms in the spirit of the Haskalah, including a plan for agricultural settlement of Jews. It was on his advice that the Russian authorities limited the number of Hebrew printing presses to three: Warsaw and Vilna in 1836, and Zhitomir in 1846 and imposed censorship on imported Hebrew books. In 1856, the Russian government decided to support him by buying 2,000 copies of his book Beit Yehudah and distributing them to synagogues and Jewish schools.
Levinsohn’s literary work was mainly polemical and propagandistic. He published a the first Hebrew grammar for Russians in 1817. Levinsohn wrote satires against Hasidim and their zaddikim. His most influential work is Te’udah be-Yisrael, which is severely critical of traditional Hadarim which he calls “Hadrei mavet” (rooms of death) and opposes their talmudic-centered curriculum, as well as the use of Yiddish, favoring instead its replacement by “pure” German or Russian. In his second major work, Beit Yehudah (Vilna, 1838) Levinsohn, who follows Moses Mendelssohn’s Jerusalem, purports to reply to 35 questions asked by “the great Christian nobleman Emanuel Lipen” (the name is a scramble of the Hebrew letters Peloni Almoni, concerning the nature of the Commandments, the Talmud, the Karaites, the Pharisees, the Zohar, Shabbateanism, Hasidism, and poses the question: “Is there still hope to reform the House of Israel and how?” His contemporaries called him the Russian Mendelssohn.
The third work Kol Yehudah is by Judah Dov b. Israel Chari (1800-1875) of Brody.